The data published in the present study presents the results calculated in accordance with the new methodology and the new basis for data generalization.
- did any work for at least one hour that generated income or an earning, namely, were employed as a hired worker, worked for their own or leased agricultural farm or ran their own non-agricultural business activity, helped ( unpaid) in running a family agricultural farm or another family business;
- had a job, but did not do it:
- due to a sickness, maternal leave or a holiday,
- due to other reasons, provided the length of the leave was:
§ up to 3 months,
§ over 3 months, but they were hired and during this time received at least 50 % of their regular pay,
The employed group – according to international standards also included persons with whom employers or natural persons concluded a training or apprenticeship contract to do a certain job, provided they received a salary.
Owing to the methodological assumptions of the survey, the number of the employed as the PAES shows did not comprise the category of people who were regarded as employed in the employment reporting, such as:
- employed, residing in a hostel,
- working abroad for Polish employers.
The employment status was based on the International Classification by Status in Employment (ICSE) where the following categories are listed:
- own-account worker – a person that operates his own enterprise including:
- employer – a person who operates his own enterprise and employs or hires at least one worker ,
- own-account worker not employing any workers – a person who operates his own enterprise and does not employ or hire any workers,
- employee - a person employed by virtue of an employment contract who works for a public or private employer,
- unpaid family worker – a person who works without pay in an economic enterprise operated by a related person ( a family member).
An employee is also a person who works under contract or persons with whom employers or natural persons concluded a training or apprenticeship contract to do a certain job, provided they received a salary.
The own-account workers are also agents in all types of agencies.
The unemployed, according to the People’s Economic Activity Survey, comprises everybody aged 15-74 who met the following conditions:
- during the reference period were without work,
- were actively seeking work, i.e. had taken specific steps to seek paid employment during 4 weeks ( including the reference week),
- currently available for work – available for paid employment during the period of two weeks following the reference period (week).
The group of the unemployed also included people who were not seeking work because they had already agreed upon a certain job and were awaiting to start it for a period of not longer than 3 months and who were available for work.
Economically inactive population, that means people who are out of work force, aged 15 or over, who were not classified as employed or unemployed, that means people who during the reference period:
- did not work, had no work and did not seek it,
- did not work, did not seek work, but were not available for work during two weeks following the reference week,
- did not work, did not seek work, because they had agreed upon a certain job and were awaiting to start it during a period:
- longer than 3 months,
- up to 3 months, but were not available for it.
Among the economically inactive there is a group of discouraged people , persons not seeking work because they are convinced that they would not find it.
Economic activity rate was calculated as the percentage of the economically active ( in all or for a given group) in the total population aged 15 or over( in all or for a given group).
Employment rate was calculated as the percentage of the employed ( in all or for a given group) in the whole population aged 15 or over( in all or for a given group).
Unemployment rate was calculated as the percentage of the unemployed ( in all or for a given category ) in the whole population aged 15 or over ( in all or for a given category).
People at the working age are those who are at the age in which they are able to take up work. For men it is 18-64 and for women 18-59. Among the people at the working age there are people at the so called mobile age, that is aged 18-44 years and at the immobile age, that is men aged 45-64 and women aged 45-59. People at the non-working age are people at the pre-working age, that is aged up to 17 and people at the retirement age which for men is 65 and over and for women 60 and over.
The sums of some figures may differ from the values entered into the “in all” column – it is a result of round-ups made when generalizing the survey results.
Due to the sample method of the survey it is advisable to be careful when using the data in cases where detailed classifications were made and where the figures show less than 15 thousand. In cases when after generalizing the test results show less than 5 thousand, the relevant figures were replaced with the # symbol. This means, that a concrete value cannot be shown due to a high sampling error.
In the Q4 the population of economically active people in the
As compared with the previous quarter the number of the economically active increased by 5,1%. Among the economically active there was an increase in the number of working people by 5,9% and the 2,3 % decrease in the number of the unemployed.
Table 1. Economically active and inactive people aged 15 and over in the Q4 of 2013
Similarly to previous quarters the economic activity ratio was definitely higher for men (62,3%) than for women (46,0%).
The economic activity ratio for people living in cities reached the level of 55,6% and for the village dwellers it was 51,4%. Per 100 economically active persons from cities and rural areas there were 84 economically inactive people.
In the fourth quarter of 2013according to the PEAS in the
In the reference quarter, the biggest economic activity was presented by persons aged 25-34 and 35-44. The economic activity ratio for both groups was: 84,2% and 83,5% respectively. For the youngest group (15-24) the economic activity ratio was 30,2%.
Table 2. Economic activity ratio for people aged 15 and over
1.1 Economic activity ratio for persons aged 15 and over by education and marital status
In the fourth quarter of
Similarly to the previous quarter the highest economic activity ratio was for the group of people with higher education (81,0%). Quite a high level of economic activity was also presented by people possessing post-secondary education and secondary vocational education (66,0%) and basic vocational education (61,4%). The lowest economic activity ratio was for the group of people with junior high school education, elementary school education, incomplete elementary school education or without education at all (17,6%).
Table 3 Economic activity ratio for people aged 15 and more by education in the fourth quarter of 2013
Considering the marital status of people aged 15 and over, the most numerous group of economically active people was made up of married men and women totaling 296 thousand, that is 64,9% of the overall number of the economically active. Also for this group the economic activity ratio was the highest reaching 61,8%. Bachelors and maidens – totaling 123 thousand, made 27,0% of the overall number of the economically active. The economic activity ratio for this group was 51,3%. As in the previous quarters, the lowest level of the economic activity ratio was for the group of widowers and widows (12,5%).
In the fourth quarter of 2013 the number of employed people increased as compared with the same period of 2012 and the previous quarter.
The employed figure reached 413 thousand and increased compared to the same period in 2012 by 0,7%. The group of working men experienced a growth by 1,3% and the number of working women remained at the same level as in the previous year ( 182 thousand, that is 44,1%).
278 thousand people from the total number of the employed came from towns and their share in the overall number of the employed was 67,3% ( a fall as compared with the fourth quarter of 2012). The number of working people living in rural areas amounted to 135 thousand ( an increase by 3,1% as compared with the same period of 2012).
Comparing with the previous quarter the total number of working people increased by 5,9%. The increase refers both to the number of working men (by 6,0%) as well as working women ( by 5,5%). The number of working people from towns increased ( by 12,6%), whereas the number of working people from villages fell (by 5,6%).
The employment rate in the fourth quarter of 2013 reached the level of 49,2% and was higher than in the previous quarter and the same period of 2012 by 0,8 percentage point and 0,2 percentage point respectively.
Table 4. Employment rate of people aged 15 and over
As compared with the same period in 2012 the employment rate grew for men by 1,3 % whereas it decreased for women by 0,7%. The rate for town dwellers increased by 0,1 % and for villagers it fell by 0,1 %.
As compared with the previous quarter the employment rate grew for men and women by 1,0 % and 0,5 % respectively. The rate for town dwellers increased ( by 2,1 % ) whereas for villagers it fell ( by 1,6) %.
The employment rate for people at the working age reached 64,2% and increased as compared with 2012 by 0,7 % and with the previous quarter by 0,5%.
Similarly to the previous quarters, the highest employment rate was manifested by the age groups of 35-44 (77,0%) and 25-34 (75,9%), whereas it was the lowest for people aged 55 and over (22,9%) and 15-24 (21,6%).
In the fourth quarter of 2013 342 thousand persons (82,8% of all the working) were employed as hired workers, including 55,7% working in the private sector. As compared with the same period in 2012 the number of hired workers fell by 1,7%. The fall referred to hired workers in a private sector (by 3,8%), whereas their number increased in the public sector ( by 1,8%).
Throughout the year the number of own-account workers increased ( by 17,9%), including the increase of employers’ number by 12,5%.
Within the period under analysis the group of hired workers working regularly ( with contracts for an unspecified period of time) amounted to 235 thousand people and the figure was smaller than the figure in the previous year by 12 thousand persons, that is by 4,9%. The number of hired workers with contracts for specified period of time was 106 thousand people, which means that this figure increased by 3,9% in comparison to the previous year.
53,2% of hired workers were males ( the figure was lower by 0,2% than the figure in the previous year). Males constituted the majority of hired workers in the private sector (61,3% in the reference period and 59,4% in 2012). The situation is different for the public sector where females constituted 62,5% of the total number of the working ( 60,0% in the previous year).
As far as the place of residence is concerned the majority of hired workers resided in towns (70,5% of the total number of the employed).
Table 5. The employed by employment status in the fourth quarter of 2013
2.2 The employment by age
The most numerous category was made from people aged 25-34 ( 29,1%). The working people made up 25,9% of the total number of people aged 35-44 , and in the group of 45-54 years old the figure was 22,5%. The smallest age group of the employed was composed of the youngest persons (aged 15-24) and the oldest (aged 55 and over) which constituted in total 6,0% and 16,5 % of the total number of the employed.
In the fourth quarter of 2013 the group of the unemployed in the
Throughout the year the number of the unemployed increased including both men ( by 4,5%) and women (by 5,3%) The number of the unemployed from rural areas increased by 44,4% and in towns the figure fell (by 6,3%).
Comparing the data with the data of the previous quarter the total number of unemployed people decreased by 2,3 %. The number of unemployed women decreased (by 4,8%), whereas the number of unemployed men stayed on the same level ( 23 thousand unemployed men in the reference period and in the previous quarter). As far as the place of residence is concerned, the unemployment decreased both for town as well as with respect to village dwellers, by 7,1% and 3,2 % respectively.
3.1 The unemployed by age
The most numerous category was made from people aged 25-34 ( 30,2 %). The unemployed made up 23,3% of the total number of people aged 15-24 , and in the group of 35-44 years old the figure was 18,6%%. In the group of 45-54 years old people the number of unemployed amounted to 16,3%. The smallest age group of the unemployed was composed of the oldest (aged 55 and over) which constituted 11,6% of the total number of the unemployed.
3.2 Unemployment rate
In the reference period the overall unemployment rate amounted to 9,4% ( with 9,8% the Poland’s average) and increased compared with the same period of 2012 (by 0,3%), and decreased compared to the previous quarter by 0,8%.
Throughout the year the unemployment rate grew both for men (by 0,3%) and for women (by 0,4%). It was also higher for village dwellers ( by 2,4%), whereas for town dwellers the figure fell by 0,5%.
The situation is different compared to the previous quarter – the unemployment rate fell both for men ( by 0,4%) and for women (by 1,0%). The figure also decreased in towns (by 1,4%) and rural areas (by 0,2%).
Table 6. Unemployment rate for people aged 15 and over
3.3 Unemployment rate by age and education
In the fourth quarter of 2013 the highest unemployment rate figure was for the youngest people under analysis, namely aged 15-24 years (28,6%), and the lowest for the people aged 35-44 and the oldest people ( aged 55 and over) – 6,9% for each age group.
The lowest unemployment rate figure was for people with higher education, namely 4,3%. For this group the figure rose compared to the same period of 2012 by 0,3% and fell by 0,7% compared to the previous quarter.
The unemployment rate figure continued to be the lowest for people with the lowest level of education and without any vocational training. In the fourth quarter of 2013 for people with lower-secondary education and elementary education the unemployment rate was 22,9% and rose compared to the same period of 2012 by 8,2% and compared to the previous quarter it remained on the same level.
For the group of people with elementary vocational education the unemployment rate figure amounted to 10,9% ( an increase compared to the same period in 2012 by 0,9% and a fall compared to the previous quarter by 0,6%), whereas for the group of people with secondary education and secondary vocational education the figure was 8,2% ( a fall compared to both the same period of 2012 by 1,3% and to the previous quarter by 1,6%).
Table 7. Unemployment rate by education in the fourth quarter of 2013
The group of economically inactive people reached 384 thousand persons, that is 45,8% of the total number of people aged 15 and over ( throughout the year there was a 0,3% fall and compared to the previous quarter there was a rise by 3,5%).
47,4% of the total number of the economically inactive was made up from people at the working age. The number of economically inactive people at the working age decreased compared to the same period in 2012 by 3,2% and compared to the previous quarter the figure rose by 5,2%.
The majority of the economically inactive lived in towns (63,5%). The biggest number of economically inactive was shown by women – 237 thousand which constituted 61,7% of the economically inactive total number.
Per 100 women aged 15 and over there were 54 economically inactive women ( in the same period of 2012 – 53) and per 100 men – there were 37 economically inactive men ( in the same period of 2012 the figure was 38).
In the group of the economically inactive 41,9% was made up of persons who did not work because they had retired ( in the same period of 2012 it was 42,9%). Another reason for economic inactivity was continuing education and training – 18,8%, sickness or disability – 18,2% and other personal or family reasons – 6,5% ( in the same period of 2012 the relative figures were 18,2% , 19,0% and 6,9% respectively).
The population of people discouraged due to unsuccessful seeking work amounted to 23 thousand people, that formed 6,0% of the total number of the economically inactive ( 5,2 % in the same period in 2012).